2018 2019 2020 Federal Poverty Levels (FPL) For Affordable Care Act (ACA)
People who don’t have health insurance from work can buy health coverage under the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare. The premiums are made affordable by a premium subsidy in the form of a tax credit calculated off your income relative to the federal poverty levels (FPL), also known as HHS poverty guidelines.
Modified Adjusted Gross Income for Obamacare is basically your gross income minus above-the-line deductions, plus tax-exempt muni bond interest, plus untaxed Social Security benefits. In order to see if you qualify for the premium subsidy, you have to know where the FPL is.
In addition to the maximum income to receive the premium subsidy, there’s also a minimum income to get accepted by the ACA marketplace. If your estimated income is too low, the ACA marketplace won’t accept you. They send you to Medicaid instead. In 32 states plus Washington, DC that expanded Medicaid, the minimum income is 138% FPL. In states that didn’t expand Medicaid, the minimum income is 100% FPL. Here’s a map showing which states expanded Medicaid and which stated did not: Current Status of State Medicaid Expansion Decisions, Kaiser Family Foundation.
Here are the numbers for coverage in 2018, 2019, and 2020. They increase with inflation every year in January. These are applied with a one-year lag. Your eligibility for a premium subsidy for 2019 is based on the FPL number announced in 2018. The new number announced in 2019 will be used for coverage in 2020.
There are three sets of numbers. FPLs are higher in Alaska and Hawaii than in 48 contiguous states and Washington DC.